Media Round-Up!

This week in Legacy City news:

Federalism and Municipal Innovation: Lessons from the Fight Against Vacant Properties
by Benton Martin
Benton Martin writes on the importance of local government to build constituencies and head off objections from other levels of government. The full essay was published in August in The Urban Lawyer.

Will a Greenbelt Help to Shrink Detroit’s Wasteland?
by Mark Skidmore, professor of economics at Michigan State University
This Land Lines article considers the fiscal causes and repercussions of Detroit’s surplus of housing and vacant property, and some potential ways to reconcile the remaining number of people with the amount of vacant and publicly held property. These measures range from targeting densely populated neighborhoods for redevelopment to establishing a greenbelt and reclaiming vacant parcels for public use.

Rutgers Plans New Arts Center in Long Vacant Downtown Newark Department Store
by Ted Sherman, NJ Advance Media for
Rutgers University has approved a $25 million plan to lease three floors of the vacant Hahne & Co. department store in downtown Newark to provide studio, classroom and gallery space for campus arts programs, in partnership with Newark artists, schools and other institutions.

The Remarkable Philanthropic Result of the Most Expensive Team Purchase in NFL History
by Mark Byrnes, The Atlantic Citylab
Charities and nonprofits in Buffalo and Detroit are poised to get a big boost thanks to late Bills owner Ralph Wilson.

Why Chicago Is Still the No. 2 U.S. City for Mexican Immigrants
by Tanvi Misra, The Atlantic Citylab
A closer look at the history of Mexican migration patterns reveals that it’s actually a natural choice.

At Forlorn Urban Churches, Mass Gets Crowded in a Flash
by Michael Paulson, The New York Times
The latest trend in Rust Belt Catholicism!

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Federalism and Municipal Innovation: Lessons from the Fight Against Vacant Properties

bentonBenton Martin writes on the importance of local government to build constituencies and head off objections from other levels of government. The full essay was published in August in The Urban Lawyer.

Cities maintain a vital role in serving as laboratories for novel government initiatives. The prevailing view of city authority, however, is that they have only those powers granted by the state. Additionally, in seeking to be innovative, cities risk running afoul of legal doctrines that reserve certain policy areas for regulation only by the federal government.

Two examples of property regulation in legacy cities serve as important reminders to city officials about federalism in the United States.

First, consider land banking. Facing rampant blight, Genesee County in Michigan developed a creative solution involving a local government entity (the land bank) acquiring, and seeking to repurpose, vacant properties. The County faced opposition, however, from limitations imposed by state law. Taking the challenges head on, local leaders persuaded the state legislature to adopt groundbreaking legislation enabling land banking. The ensuing success prompted many other municipalities to adopt this approach.

The second example is ordinances requiring registration of vacant property. As with land banking, successful registration initiatives in a handful of cities inspired imitation by hundreds more. But some state governments acted to weaken these efforts by limiting local discretion. The federal government pushed back, too. When the City of Chicago enacted an aggressive ordinance requiring mortgage lenders to comply with strict maintenance standards for foreclosed properties, the Federal Housing Finance Agency challenged the law in a federal court and won an exemption for properties with mortgages backed by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.

City leaders must not stop crafting bold solutions to local problems. Instead, they must remember the possibility of powerful, but often surmountable, opposition from other levels of government. Our system is one of “polyphony”—many voices contributing to a single chorus. If municipal leaders consider up front the singers in this choir—the state legislators, federal agencies, and private business or community groups with a stake in the issue—they will be in the best position to produce harmony rather than cacophony.

Benton C. Martin is a law clerk to the Honorable Geraldine Soat Brown, Presiding Magistrate Judge for the Northern District of Illinois.

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Let Them In. Bring Them Here.

fleischerFor our second post in honor of National Welcoming Week, Peter Fleischer joins us from Empire State Future to highlight the various imperatives of immigrant integration in legacy cities. This post was first published on the ESF blog and is re-posted with permission by the author.

If it were only a case of 50,000 destitute children interned for trying to enter the United States, we would not still be reading about this ongoing sadness. Many right-minded, good people fear that where there are 50,000 today, there will be 500,000 or perhaps five million refugees before long. So what should one do? I say bring them here. They are kids. They are not a threat, economically or otherwise.

We have room here in the Lake Belt (formerly dubbed the Rust Belt), and soon we will need these brave and oh so familiar strangers, fleeing poverty, hatred and violence, wanting a better life. From Duluth, Minnesota through Milwaukee, Kankakee, Gary, Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Erie, Buffalo, Syracuse, Albany, all the way to Springfield, Massachusetts and Hartford, Connecticut, our legacy cities have room. In recent decades, these places have shed at least the number of people we might soon see as new immigrants.

Syracuse, NY (Photo: Empire State Future)
Syracuse, NY (Photo: Empire State Future)

In many places, what once were attractive core cities now regrettably contain hundreds of thousands of empty lots, abandoned homes, under-utilized shopping centers, old schools and historic places of worship. Way too many of them are slated for demolition.

Many once-thriving downtowns are paved over for parking lots, and lined with shuttered stores. These are the hollowed out places where new immigrants from the Ukraine, Italy, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Ireland, Germany — everywhere, actually — once made things and made many people wealthy in the process.

These are places with water, sewer, road and bus systems built bigger than their shrunken populations can now afford. These are old established communities with rich histories that also contain fine medical centers, universities, museums, theatres and architecture. Urban planners say they have “fine bones.”

Population experts say they have inverted demographic pyramids — too many old people, too few young ones.

And it’s not just the cities: rural areas in upstate New York, for example, are inverted in this way as well. It’s projected that Upstate counties by 2025 will experience ratios of working people to retired people approaching 1 to 1. Real estate brokers, bankers, and municipal officials know why that won’t work — its Economics 101 — supply and demand!

When too many Baby Boomers (people age 55 and over) downsize and try to sell their homes, as they soon will, there are regularly too few buyers. This is largely due to the perfect storm of baby bust, youth flight, and changing housing preferences, which cause home prices to fall.

Nest eggs will shrink. Towns, villages, and cities will need to raise tax rates just to maintain services. This already vicious cycle will grow ever more vicious. And the market will have spoken, often with devastating consequences.

Averting this human and marketplace debacle that is coming to a community near you by 2025 or so is still possible. Simply put, new buyers are needed. Not quite yet, but soon, demographically speaking. Just about the time when the children now at the border will need homes of their own.

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The Future of Legacy Cities in an Era of Welcoming

rachelheadIn honor of National Welcoming Week, Rachel Peric, Deputy Director of Welcoming America, joins us to discuss opportunities to embrace and engage immigrant communities in Legacy Cities like St. Louis and Dayton.

Immigration has dominated news headlines for much of this summer, with little progress made in the debate on Capitol Hill. Yet, regardless of what is happening in Washington, immigrants are being welcomed across the country into communities that recognize that their greatest strength comes from their diverse residents. In Legacy Cities, there is a growing recognition that a wellspring of resilience resides not only in the untapped assets of infrastructure and longstanding institutions, but in the people who have and will continue to shape the future. As in centuries past, New Americans should be welcomed as vital partners in expanding prosperity for our nation’s cities.

Today marks the start of National Welcoming Week, an event that celebrates the growing movement of communities and leaders across the United States that fully embrace immigrants and their contributions to the local and national fabric of our country. Hosted by the national organization, Welcoming America, the event taps into the creativity of communities both small and large, rural and urban. In 27 states, from Virginia to Washington, local organizations are hosting events that celebrate the extraordinary untapped potential of their diverse residents. These events build personal connections among neighbors, business owners, parents, and newly naturalized citizens, and they are supported by community leaders ranging from mayors to the heads of economic development agencies, arts institutions, and community colleges.

(Photo: Welcoming America)
(Photo: Welcoming America)

And rightly so – forward-looking institutions and community leaders recognize the economic imperatives to open their doors to the increasingly diverse US population. In fact, communities across the country and around the world are in a race to the top to attract and retain the human capital that will allow them to thrive in a global economy. Becoming a more welcoming place for both immigrants and long-term residents gives cities and institutions a leg up in that competition and helps retain talented people of all backgrounds.

As a result, a growing movement of cities and municipalities in the United States – many of them Legacy Cities – are recognizing the economic and social benefits of attracting and integrating immigrants, and are creating a welcoming environment that allows all residents to reach their fullest potential.

(Photo: St. Louis Mosaic Project)
(Photo: St. Louis Mosaic Project)

Take for example, St Louis, Missouri, which seeks to become the fastest growing U.S. metropolitan area for immigration by 2020, bolstered by a business case developed by a local economist with Saint Louis University that showed how immigrants were key to the city’s future prosperity and economic growth. The report led to the formation of a regional task-force, and ultimately the creation of the St. Louis Mosaic Project, which works toward a goal of regional prosperity through immigration & innovation, based on a comprehensive, community driven strategy that engages all sectors of the community. Efforts such as the Mosaic Ambassadors program build bridges between newer immigrant communities and long-time residents, while other initiatives promote economic growth and workforce participation, such as through a mentorship program that connects immigrants to skilled professionals in their field.

In Dayton, Ohio, the Welcome Dayton Plan, is a blueprint for positioning Dayton to become the most immigrant-friendly city in Ohio, if not the entire country. The plan, adopted unanimously by the city council in 2011, includes programs that provide marketing support for specific neighborhoods that have become hubs of immigrant entrepreneurship, community gatherings that create dialogue and empathy between U.S-born and immigrant residents and increase access to English language learning. Taken together, these efforts have attracted new residents from across the globe and led immigrants to participate more fully in the community, opening new businesses and buying homes that refresh the community and economy. The effort has also turned back Dayton’s population decline, for the first time in half a century.

The great American city has long been shaped by migration, and will be again this century. But how cities respond to demographic change will influence their destiny, and whether they and all their residents can truly thrive.

Rachel Peric is the Deputy Director of Welcoming America, a national organization that helps communities across the country reach their full economic and social potential by becoming more welcoming toward immigrants. She has worked in community and international development for 15 years. To find out more, visit

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Opening Up Vacant Lots Data

paulasegelheadPaula Segel joins us as a guest contributor from 596 Acres, a land access advocacy group that helps people see opportunities in their neighborhood vacant lots. This article originally appeared on the Sunlight Foundation site and is re-posted with permission from the author and blog editors.

In New York City alone, hundreds of city-owned sites languish, located primarily in low-income communities of color, collecting garbage and blighting the very neighborhoods they could enliven. Taken together, these forgotten spaces — fenced-off, inaccessible and lost to bureaucratic neglect — are larger than most city parks. Uneven growth in cities, even in seemingly strong market cities like New York, is a problem that is compounded by an uneven access to information about how people can influence the development of the places where they live. In cities across America, a lack of developed and maintained green spaces is just one symptom of municipal neglect; a lack of information about how people can shape the city comes with it.

Lot labels provide information about city agency owners directly on the fences of city-owned vacant lots (Photo: 596 Acres)
Lot labels provide information about city agency owners directly on the fences of city-owned vacant lots (Photo: Murray Cox)

596 Acres, a land access advocacy group, has been running a pilot project that helps neighbors see opportunities in the fenced vacant lots of New York City’s most historically disadvantaged neighborhoods since August 2011. We created a map of city-owned vacant land by sourcing and manipulating developed from available Open Data to create a useful resource and hands-on manipulation of that data to transform it into useful information. This map is the foundation of the NYC Community Land Access Project, which has evolved over the last three years to include social networking features that have already supported 143 neighbor-led campaigns to transform vacant lots throughout New York City into gardens, farms and play spaces. We have also built a specialized rolodex that leads New Yorkers directly to the individuals in city government who can answer their questions about the specific lots in their lives, cutting through the confusion of sixteen land-holding city agencies with different inventory stewards for different boroughs, and confusion about who the decision makers really are. The mapping tool also allows us, as the NYC Community Land Access Project, to put signs directly on the fences of city-owned vacant lots with specific information about city agency owners directly on the fences of city-owned vacant lots.

(Photo: Greg Mihalko)
(Photo: Greg Mihalko)

Twenty-five groups have gotten official permission to access the lots in their lives so far, transforming of 6.7 acres of fenced vacant parcels of land into open community spaces. Through the tool and direct hands-on advocacy, we are opening up the commons and creating spaces where people have the opportunity to build the city, together.

Our experience with the pilot project has led to three key partnerships with advocates in other cities: we built Grounded In Philly with the Garden Justice Legal Initiative in 2012, Living Lots NOLA with the New Orleans Food and Farm Network in 2013 and will soon be launching LA Open Acres with Community Health Councils in Los Angeles. Understanding that each city has a particular policy and real estate environment, particularly constrained in legacy cities, each of these tools transforms available data into information differently, so that it is useful for understanding opportunities for community land access in the specific community it serves in each city’s particular policy and real estate environment. In each instance, we have re-used portions of the code and re-applied the most effective pieces of the design, iteratively developing a platform for community land access called Living Lots. And in each city, advocates are using the tools to help protect existing community-managed open spaces, connect new farmers with land owners who want to see their urban land put to use, encourage land-holding agencies to make their lots available to the people who live near the lots and, of course, help neighbors connect directly with the decision makers who hold the keys to the lots in their lives.

(Photo: 596 Acres)
(Photo: 596 Acres)

This fall, with the help of a Sunlight Foundation OpenGov grant, we’ll be bringing Living Lots home and making a huge leap in the evolution of our NYC pilot project by creating Living Lots NYC. Living Lots NYC will be faster, include key filters (e.g. you’ll be able to see the lots in a particular community or city council district), show parcel outlines (which we can do now that MapPLUTO is free), have improved design, updated data about community gardens (thanks to an updated survey by our friends at GrowNYC), information about lots that were planned as “open space” under urban renewal (we have done an extensive analysis of all the plans the city has ever created), contact information for community boards directly associated with each lot, and more intuitive social networking and case-tracking features. To get a sense of where it’s going, check out Living Lots NOLA.

It’s not about technology, that’s too easy. It’s not about community gardens, that’s too messy. It’s about the right to remake ourselves by remaking the city.

If you’re in New York City, join 596 Acres on September 6 in Long Island City for a Ribbon Cutting at Smiling Hogshead Ranch and on October 2 to celebrate all our acres at the Mapping Matters gala in DUMBO.

Paula Z. Segal is the founding director of 596 Acres. She is a graduate of City University of New York Law School at Queens College, where she was a Haywood Burns Fellow in Human and Civil Rights and worked in the Economic Justice Project at Main Street Legal Services. Before joining the legal profession, Paula taught English to Speakers of Other Languages, developed curricula and ran an all-volunteer adult English school on the Lower East Side. She was also a member of the Empty Vessel Project. Paula is an attorney admitted to practice in New York State who is a partner in her own firm, Mohen & Segal, which focuses on legal services for entities working on our shared sustainable economy. She has practiced in the Disaster Recovery Unit at Staten Island Legal Services and at Rankin & Taylor.

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Preservation as Change of Mind

margoGuest writer and preservationist Margo Warminski offers some closing thoughts following the Historic Preservation Conference in Cleveland. This article was first published by the Preservation Rightsizing Network and is re-posted with permission from the author and blog editors.

I grew up in 48205. (Google it.) I lived in a place where the American dream went into reverse, and kept going backward. Eventually I moved to a calmer zip code but kept the Rust Belt DNA. Which is why I couldn’t wait to spend three days at the Historic Preservation in America’s Legacy Cities conference in Cleveland.

And I wasn’t disappointed. Throw so many bright, engaged, outspoken urbanists in a (big) room and you can’t help but be inspired, and challenged by tough truths (Looking for happy talk? Keep looking.) like:

1. For years, much of preservation was oriented toward controlling growth: a manifest destiny of new restoration districts, better ordinances and more wood windows. But what happens when the wheels come off and, in some neighborhoods, you can’t even give houses away? Preservationists, not just in rusty cities, need a change of mind: learning to live within limits. As we heard over and over, the overriding goals should be to keep buildings standing, and keep people in them—even if we have to compromise on guidelines and expectations.

IMG_03222. You can’t demolish away the problem of vacated neighborhoods. For years, cities have been whacking away at buildings in a kind of slow-motion urban renewal, yet vacancy continues to spread. As Alan Mallach ably stated, low demand, not vacancy, is the issue. [editor's note:While it’s true that demolition alone will not solve the problem, Alan’s point was that we should work both to rebuild demand (which is a slow, gradual process) while also implementing a strategic plan for demolition. Vacancy is a result of low demand, and all legacy cities have a large, and increasing housing surplus. When asked to comment on Margo’s point, Mallach reminded us that “demolition may not be the answer, but the reality of oversupply means that many buildings will be lost, either through demolition or neglect.”]

3. You can’t separate race, class, poverty, crime, unemployment, and extreme isolation.
4. You can’t save everything. We know this better than anyone.
5. And: time, resources, political will — never enough.

IMG_0352Most exciting was the four-hour closing workshop where we hammered together an action agenda, more or less in harmony. Our wish list included: more funding (saved, expanded tax credit; new products for low-value properties); more balance (money for stabilization, not just demolition); and more, better data. And we left with work orders:

1. Pitch the plans. Take meaningful, incremental steps.
2. Go top-down, bottom-up. Cities need both DIY-urbanism and activist government.
3. Reach across the room. Realize that first priorities of people in hard-hit neighborhoods probably aren’t restoring Italianate cornices. You can’t impose on people with different priorities.
4.Find common threads in tangled history. Newer residents of old neighborhoods may not cherish them for the original residents, but they may share values and aspirations with the founders.

Now, back to 48205. As a kid, I wanted to live on a street in a nearby neighborhood called Robinwood East. Just a bungalow block, but the name sounded glamorous. (Google-map it to see what’s left of it today.) For Robinwood East and Delhi Avenue and Flint and Youngstown and struggling historic places in lonely corners of America, that’s why this matters. Let’s go.

Margo Warminski is the Preservation Director at the Cincinnati Preservation Association, where she leads research, advocacy, and community outreach about preservation through monthly programs and assisting with agency events and publicity. She has worked in the historic preservation field in the Cincinnati area for over twenty years.

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Military Park: A Catalyst for Newark’s Renaissance

kimberlyheadKimberly Dowdell writes on the transformative effect of open spaces and the hopeful future of one legacy city in New Jersey.

At the ribbon-cutting ceremony for Military Park in Newark, New Jersey last month, Senator Cory Booker made the insightful remark that “strong American cities require strong parks and urban spaces.” As several hundred people gathered to celebrate the official re-opening of the historic park, there was a renewed sense of hope for the future of Newark as a strong city. The energy in that celebratory space and moment in time seemed to reflect a new beginning for Newark’s downtown, as well as the 6-acre, triangular-shaped park that was being ceremoniously handed back to the public after more than a year of construction – and decades of disrepair.

Established in 1667, Military Park initially served as a training ground for soldiers – as well as a camping site for George Washington’s troops during the Revolutionary War in 1776. Nearly a century later, Military Park became the official town commons of Newark and gained further distinction as the site of several important American monuments and statues. But by the late 70s, Newark experienced dramatic economic decline, much like other legacy cities, which resulted in the gradual neglect and ultimate desertion of Military Park, which was deemed unsafe by the public. This condition persisted for the next few decades, causing Military Park to further diminish and evolve into a ghost of its former self.


After many years of analysis, planning, design, approval and fundraising–efforts starting in 2003 were picked up again in earnest by 2010–the Military Park Partnership (MPP) broke ground on a $5 million revitalization effort in May 2013. Led by Biederman Redevelopment Ventures (BRV), the firm responsible for reviving Manhattan’s Bryant Park, MPP assembled a team of landscape design, lighting design, engineering, building design and construction professionals to chart a new path forward for Military Park. fountainGiven the park’s perception as a dangerous and uninviting place, it was important that the redesign signal a warm welcome to a safe, positive environment for all visitors. This was achieved in part by pushing the park’s southern-most trees outwards towards the street, creating a much more generous entry space for the park.

Once inside, visitors are greeted by the 1965 bust sculpture of John F. Kennedy, Jr. as well as several new shaded tables and chairs. Walking further north, visitors encounter a breathtaking floral arrangement inside and around the iconic sword fountain, which is the centerpiece of the entire park, culminating in the 1926 Wars of America monument – the sword’s symbolic handle. jfkbustMoving along the finely groomed, tree-lined space, visitors continue to see chairs and tables along with gorgeous pops of color achieved though planters placed along the walking sequence. Directly behind the sword, there is a redesigned stair tower that leads to the parking structure below. Previously, this small structure appeared to be dark, dreary and unsafe. Today, the new cladding materials and greater transparency into the stair tower alleviates the previous concerns about park safety. MPP has also addressed this issue by hiring a security staff to monitor activity in the park at all times. The occurrence of crime in Military Park is expected to be virtually eliminated, addressing much of the reason that the park was underutilized in the past.


In addition to heightened safety and openness, Military Park boasts an exciting new line-up of programs and activities for all citizens to enjoy, from yoga, ping pong, and chess, to outdoor reading rooms and public concerts. An important addition to the park for larger scale events is the new Comfort Station that offers safe and clean public restrooms. One of the most exciting new amenities of the park is Burg, a gourmet hamburger venue that will offer a variety of food and beverages for park visitors to enjoy during their stay, scheduled to open this fall.

prudentialThe rebirth of Military Park plays a vital role in the City of Newark’s revitalization plan. Directly across from the park on Broad St., Prudential is building a 20-story office tower, while several new retail spaces are being constructed along Military Park’s western side. Northwest of the park, Trinity & St. Philip’s Cathedral remains a long-standing fixture in the community. Northeast, the New Jersey Performing Arts Center (NJPAC) is also an important anchor for the park. To the east, on Park Place, there are a variety of retail, office and institutional neighbors, including a hotel and conference center.

With so much new and positive activity brewing in Newark, the future of the city is bright, and Military Park is an indicator of this because it truly belongs to the public and will succeed or fail based on the public’s embrace. As Senator Booker suggests, Military Park directly reflects the strength of the city. In the coming months and years, this area of downtown Newark is expected to flourish. Military Park will be the centerpiece of this renaissance and I am proud to have been a part of the project team tasked with bringing the vision of this revitalized urban oasis to fruition.


Kimberly Dowdell is a licensed architect, project manager and urban strategist. Currently, she is a Sheila C. Johnson Leadership Fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School, where she is pursuing a Master of Public Administration. Kim previously served as a real estate project manager for Levien & Company where she managed the Military Park assignment in Newark and the Middle Collegiate Church project in Manhattan. She is a native of Detroit, Michigan and a co-founder of SEED (Social Economic Environmental Design). Kim’s mission is to make cities better places for people to live, learn, work and play.

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Sacred Landmarks: The Jewish/African American Connection

kathleenheadLast month, we had the pleasure of meeting Kathleen Crowther, President of the Cleveland Restoration Society, and she offered a great deal of insight on historic preservation and developing strategic partnerships toward economic development goals in older industrial cities like Cleveland.  This article by Kerri Broome and Dawn Ellis appeared previously in the CRS Know Your History series.

Nationally, the relationship between Jewish and African American communities is complex, nuanced and richly textured. Throughout the years, both groups have been able to find similarities in their history and to empathize with the other. When it comes to housing, both groups have faced discrimination and restriction, and have, consequently, found themselves sharing neighborhoods. The Great Migration of African Americans and the second wave of Jewish immigrants (Eastern European) partially overlapped, resulting in large numbers of these two groups locating in prescribed areas of northern American cities, such as Chicago, Philadelphia and Cleveland.

The first Jewish immigrants arrived in Cleveland from Germany in the 1830s, settling primarily in the Central area and gradually moving eastward towards the suburbs through the end of the 19th century and into the middle of the 20th century. The subsequent wave of Jewish Eastern Europeans to move into Cleveland in the 1870s and 1880s entered into areas already inhabited by the earlier Jewish immigrants.

Friendship Baptist Church (Formerly Willson Avenue Temple)
Friendship Baptist Church (Formerly Willson Avenue Temple)

Early in the 20th century, African Americans also lived in other parts of the east side, but no area was predominantly African American. As other ethnic groups dispersed and racially restrictive covenants were put in place to limit where the rising African American middle class could buy property, the area around Central Avenue slowly became exclusively African American. As Cleveland’s Jewish population followed the national trend of moving from the urban neighborhoods to the suburbs, African Americans were able to rent or buy property in these areas. Several of Cleveland’s synagogues were bought by African-American Christian congregations.

While the current congregations have made changes to adapt the original Jewish synagogue design for their contemporary Christian worship, many of these sacred landmarks still hold evidence of their origins as Jewish places of worship. For example, there is often a Star of David detail incorporated into the façade or the stained glass windows may still feature Jewish symbols. Through the legacy of a shared space, some of these congregations nurture their relationship and choose to stay connected through periodic gatherings and combined services.

As this summer marks the 50th anniversary of Freedom Summer, a key period of Jewish/African American partnership, and a time when this collaboration was most fruitful in accomplishing one of its main goals–the end of discrimination in housing, education and employment–this examination of the relationship between Cleveland’s immigrant and migrant communities is indeed timely.

More photos ahead.

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A Tale of Two Cities

hankwebberphotoHank Webber joins us from Washington University in St. Louis to discuss design interventions in cities with dual narratives of revitalization and depopulation.

The dominant narrative about legacy cities is one of decline, loss of population and increasing poverty. This narrative is, at best, dramatically oversimplified. Legacy cities do face great challenges, but they are also full of hope and resurgence, and scores of increasingly vibrant neighborhoods. Legacy cities can best be thought of not as places of decline but rather as straddling between two very different worlds.

First is the world of urban revitalization: the growth of diverse, vibrant urban neighborhoods that are becoming increasingly attractive to young people and the firms that employ them. Every large city I know has neighborhoods that are getting better by traditional economic criteria. St. Louis, the city where my wife and I live and where I focus much of my research, is clearly a legacy city. Yet the neighborhood where we live, the Central West End, is not only very attractive by all conventional standards, it is also rapidly getting stronger. Forest Park is getting better, street life is improving, and white-collar employers are moving in. There are ten or so other neighborhoods in the City of St. Louis that are experiencing similarly strong positive trends.

Basketball court, North St. Louis
Basketball court, North St. Louis

But there is another world present in almost every legacy city. That world is one of depopulation, the growth of low-density, very high-poverty neighborhoods, and the abandonment or disinvestment of large tracts of the city. That is the world of North St. Louis and much of Detroit. It is also the story of much of the far South Side and South Suburbs of Chicago. Many of the decaying neighborhoods in older industrial cities have lost their traditional economic role; they were built to house industrial workers and those jobs have been lost, probably forever.

The balance of these two worlds varies by city. In some cities, the larger story is revitalization. Pittsburgh and Baltimore have both seen widespread improvement in recent years. In other cities, the dominant story is depopulation and low-density poverty. But in most legacy cities, there is both revitalization and depopulation. Amidst decline, Detroit has growing and vibrant neighborhoods and Chicago, the most successful of older industrial cities, still faces great challenges.

Fell's Point, Baltimore Waterfront
Fell’s Point, Baltimore Waterfront

I do not believe that urban design is the root cause of either urban revitalization or urban depopulation, but it can contribute to both. Successful urban revitalization depends on attracting people who have choices, in many cases a great numbers of choices, when considering where to live. Given that older industrial cities, with rare exceptions, do not provide great public services (e.g. public schools), it is critical that neighborhood and cultural life be vibrant and attractive. For all of the attention to public spaces and park design, I am struck by how little we know about what makes great, walkable streets and how to use space to build neighborhood social capital. Community design centers, among others, are critical players in building a science of high quality, small-scale urban interventions. Solving the problem of large-scale urban depopulation is even more vexing and currently has many fewer people working in this space. There are, unfortunately, large parts of many cities that are unlikely to be revitalized by normal market forces in the next few decades. All of us who care about cities need to focus deep attention on how these parts of cities can become assets to both residents and their metropolitan regions.

Henry S. Webber is the Executive Vice Chancellor for Administration at Washington University and Adjunct Professor at the Sam Fox School of Art and Architecture, teaching courses on topics including community development, health policy, and strategic management and social welfare policy. Previously, Webber was a faculty member at the University of Chicago, where he worked to promote the revitalization of the North Kenwood/Oakland and Woodlawn neighborhoods on Chicago’s South Side.

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Vacancy at Various Scales

terry_schwarzTerry Schwarz joins us to discuss the benefits of studying “natural neighborhoods,” or planning at the sub-watershed level as a way to explore the aggregate effects of the many smaller interventions happening in legacy cities.

Surplus real estate is a common characteristic of legacy cities. Population decline and the ongoing effects of the foreclosure crisis have led to an unprecedented number of vacant and abandoned buildings, which in turn has given rise to the large-scale demolition programs underway in Cleveland, Detroit, Buffalo, and many other legacy cities. In the wake of demolition efforts, cities need to take a thoughtful approach to the management and reuse of vacant land, given that much of this land is unlikely to be redeveloped in the foreseeable future.

Detroit has over 100,000 vacant lots within city limits. Philadelphia has approximately 40,000 vacant lots. In Cleveland, the current count stands at about 21,000. Community gardens, greening projects, side yard expansions, and infill development are the most frequent responses to urban vacancy, but these strategies only address a small percentage of the large and growing inventories of vacant land in legacy cities.

Youngstown Neighborhood Development Meeting, Source: Defend Youngstown
Youngstown Neighborhood Development Meeting
Source: Defend Youngstown

Some cities have developed broad strategies for dealing with population loss and urban vacancy. The Youngstown 2010 Plan, Re-imagining a More Sustainable Cleveland, and Detroit Future City each provide a strategic framework for vacant land reuse at the citywide scale, with varying degrees of specificity. These three cities, among others, have also launched pilot projects at the parcel scale to introduce green space uses into depopulating neighborhoods.

However, inbetween high-level city-wide strategies and small-scale interventions for individual sites, there is a need to address vacancy in a more coordinated way at the neighborhood scale, where inter-related actions can produce a network of greening and redevelopment uses with additive benefits. When exploring options for vacant land, natural boundaries are often more relevant than political subdivisions. Nature’s equivalent of a “neighborhood” is a sub-watershed.

As defined by the EPA, a watershed is the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place. Sub-watersheds are smaller drainage areas (or catchments) within a larger watershed. For example, Greater Cleveland has five major watersheds which drain to Lake Erie. Within these larger watersheds, there are numerous sub-watersheds that drain to smaller tributaries or culverts as water makes its way to the lake.

Thinking about vacant land at the scale of a sub-watershed enables us to see how greening and redevelopment strategies for individual vacant parcels can impact economic, ecological, and human health outcomes at the scale of a neighborhood, city or region. Planning at the sub-watershed scale enables us to make better choices about where to concentrate infill development and where to set aside vacant land for permanent green space and green infrastructure uses.

Dugway Brook Watershed
Source: Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative

To illustrate this point, we can look at the Dugway Brook, one of Cleveland’s many sub-watersheds. An initial overlay shows all existing green spaces with the sub-watershed. The next overlay adds vacant lots in ecologically useful locations, which in this case means sites that align with culverts (buried creeks) that feed into Dugway Brook. These sites can be aggregated into greenways that allow for natural infiltration of stormwater and create a public amenity. Finally, we can overlay the areas within the sub-watershed that offer the best potential for future infill development.

Planning at the sub-watershed scale is a way to explore the aggregate effects of many, small-scale interventions on the long-term regeneration of legacy cities. For example, can numerous parcel- and neighborhood-scale tree planting efforts achieve city-wide and regional impacts in terms of improved air quality and a reduction of urban heat island effects? Could hundreds (or thousands) of small-scale green infrastructure installations have a measurable effect on water quality, the health of the Great Lakes, and combined sewer overflows? Can scattered site food production (community gardens, urban farms, etc.) have an impact on food security issues at the city-wide or regional scale?

If we examine these issues at the sub-watershed scale, we can assess whether many small actions will add up to large-scale outcomes. And whether there are thresholds or tipping points at which urban systems begin to shift to more sustainable states.

Terry Schwarz is the Director of Kent State University’s Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative (CUDC). Her work at the CUDC includes neighborhood and campus planning, commercial and residential design guidelines, stormwater management and green infrastructure strategies. Terry launched the CUDC’s Shrinking Cities Institute and established Pop Up City, a temporary use initiative for vacant and underutilized sites in Cleveland.

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